Skip to Main Content

fox squirrel

Fact File

Scientific Name: Sciurus niger vulpinus

Classification: Mammalia, Order Rodentia, Family Sciuridae

Identifying Characteristics

They are larger than the gray squirrel, and smaller than the typical niger with the coloration less variable, buff brown dorsally, and white ventrally, with the tail grayish-white above, orange below, and the top of head black. They have a flatter forehead than the gray squirrel. The average total length of 3 Virginia specimens is 545-618 mm, and the average weight is 750-950 grams (1 1/5 – 3 lbs.). One to two litters of 3-4 young are born each year. There are 2 types of nests: The leaf nest is a loose mass of leaves and twigs and the den is a cavity. They are found at heights from 11-62 feet above the ground. They use leaf nests more than gray squirrel, and may use 1-3 shelters within the territory. They are diurnal and forage largely on the ground. They may become inactive during winter cold periods but there is no hibernation.


This subspecies is relatively common in most counties west of the Blue Ridge mountains in Virginia. A specimen typical of this subspecies was reported from Southampton County. This species makes dens in decayed-out areas of trees and limbs. They use open woodlots with clearings interspersed, and unbroken forest is unsuitable. It often lives along forest borders, ideally in small stands of large trees interspersed with agricultural lands.

Last updated: January 19, 2024

The Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources Species Profile Database serves as a repository of information for Virginia’s fish and wildlife species. The database is managed and curated by the Wildlife Information and Environmental Services (WIES) program. Species profile data, distribution information, and photography is generated by the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources, State and Federal agencies, Collection Permittees, and other trusted partners. This product is not suitable for legal, engineering, or surveying use. The Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources does not accept responsibility for any missing data, inaccuracies, or other errors which may exist. In accordance with the terms of service for this product, you agree to this disclaimer.