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Oak Toad

Fact File

Scientific Name: Anaxyrus quercicus

Classification: Amphibian, Order Anura, Family Bufonidae

Conservation Status:

Size: Up to 1.3 inches

Identifying Characteristics

This small toad has a conspicuous light mid-dorsal stripe that may be white, cream, yellow, or orange and 4-5 pairs of spots on the back. It is black or brown in color and the skin is finely roughened with tubercles (small bumps), many of which are red.


In Virginia, this species only occurs in the southeastern Coastal Plain where it reaches the northern end of its range. Non-breeding habitats are associated with open pine or oak forests with sandy soils.

Did You Know?

This is the smallest species of toad in North America.

Role in the Web of Life

Oak Toads are unique in that they are primarily active during the day, although daytime and nighttime breeding events have been observed. Breeding occurs from April-September in shallow pools often following heavy rain. Up to 500 eggs are deposited with tadpoles emerging 24-36 hours after fertilization. Hibernation occurs from early December to early March. Their advertisement call sounds like the peeping of newly hatched chicks and can be loud at close range.


Tier II Species of Greatest Conservation Need in Virginia’s Wildlife Action Plan

Last updated: January 22, 2024

The Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources Species Profile Database serves as a repository of information for Virginia’s fish and wildlife species. The database is managed and curated by the Wildlife Information and Environmental Services (WIES) program. Species profile data, distribution information, and photography is generated by the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources, State and Federal agencies, Collection Permittees, and other trusted partners. This product is not suitable for legal, engineering, or surveying use. The Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources does not accept responsibility for any missing data, inaccuracies, or other errors which may exist. In accordance with the terms of service for this product, you agree to this disclaimer.